Allopurinol up-regulates the IGF-1/Akt pathway and down-regulates muscle atrophy-related E3 ubiquitin ligases in skeletal muscle. (A) Representative western blotting of soleus proteins (full-length blots are included in supplementary information. See Supplementary Figure 3). (B) Shows mRNA levels of Cbl-b in soleus muscle. (C to E) Show the densitometric analysis quantified using relative expression in arbitrary units of IRS-1 (C), p-Akt (D), p-FoxO3 (E). (F and G) Show the soleus muscle mRNA levels of MuRF-1 (F) and MAFbx (G). (H to J) Show the densitometric analysis quantified using relative expression in arbitrary units of Beclin-1 (H), p62 (I), and LC3-II (J). Actin and GAPDH were used as a loading control in the western blots, as indicated. Data are shown as mean ± SD, C (n = 4–6), U (n = 4–5), and UA (n = 4–5).