Table 1 Number of studies and observations for the analyzed traits.

From: Impact of genetically engineered maize on agronomic, environmental and toxicological traits: a meta-analysis of 21 years of field data

Impact type Trait Number of studies Number of observations
Grain yield Grain yield-all 19 276
Grain yield-single stack 16 126
Grain yield-double stack 10 92
Grain yield-triple stack 3 36
Grain yield-quadruple stack 2 22
Damaged ears Damaged ears-all 7 139
Damaged ears-single stack 4 37
Damaged ears-double stack 3 42
Damaged ears-triple stack 2 36
Damaged ears-quadruple stack 2 24
Grain quality Proteins 3 6
Lipids 3 6
Acid Detergent Fiber 3 6
Neutral Detergent Fiber 3 6
Total Detergent Fiber 3 6
Fumonisins 4 20
Thricotecens 4 22
Mycotoxins 9 55
TO taxa Diabrotica spp. (adults) 5 99
NTO taxa Anthocoridae (adults) 15 80
Aphididae (adults) 8 59
Araneae (adults) 12 104
Braconidae (adults) 4 105
Carabidae (adults) 10 88
Chrysopidae (adults) 9 53
Chrysopidae (larvae) 3 7
Cicadellidae (adults) 6 23
Coccinellidae (adults) 17 164
Coccinellidae (larvae) 4 9
Nabidae (adults) 5 17
Nitidulidae (adults) 6 50
Staphylinidae (adults) 9 54
Biomass decompostition Lignin in leaves 3 4
Lignin in stalks 3 4
Stalk mass loss 3 7
Residue mass loss 3 6
CO2 emission 3 8