Response ratios. Effects of GE maize hybrids on the significant traits: grain yield and damaged ears (a), grain quality (fumonisins, thricotecenes, mycotoxins), target (Diabrotica spp.) and non-target (Braconidae, Cicadellidae) organisms and residue mass loss (b). The response ratio was calculated as the mean percentage of change for the weighted Hedge’s g (g+) values different from zero between the GE hybrids and their isolines. SS = single eventhybrid; DS = double stacked hybrid; TS = triple stacked hybrid; QS = quadruple stacked hybrid.