Table 3 The number of remaining teeth according to the frequency of coffee intake.

From: Coffee Intake as a Risk Indicator for Tooth Loss in Korean Adults

  Remaining teeth (n)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Coffee intake (n)
<1/mo 21.9 ± 0.3 22.3 ± 0.2 22.4 ± 0.2 23 ± 0.2
2/mo–1/wk 22.4 ± 0.4 22.3 ± 0.3 22.3 ± 0.3 22.9 ± 0.3
2–6/wk 22.4 ± 0.3 21.9 ± 0.2 22.1 ± 0.2 22.6 ± 0.2
daily 23.3 ± 0.2 21.6 ± 0.1 21.7 ± 0.1 22.2 ± 0.1
p-value <0.001 0.02 0.02 0.004
  1. The data are presented as mean ± standard error for continuous variables. *p-value < 0.05 designated statistical significance. Data were analyzed by one-way ANCOVA. MODEL1 was non-adjusted. MODEL2 was adjusted for gender and age. MODEL3 was adjusted for gender, age, drinking, smoking, household income, physical exercise, and education level. MODEL4 was adjusted for gender, age, drinking, smoking, metabolic syndrome, household income, physical exercise, education level, BMI, number of daily tooth brushing sessions, and stress level.