Table 1 Participant characteristics.

From: Coffee Intake as a Risk Indicator for Tooth Loss in Korean Adults

  Remaining teeth (n) < 20
No Yes p-value
n 5359 1940
Age (year) 52.5 ± 0.2 66.6 ± 0.37 <0.001
Gender (M) 48.3 (0.7) 46.4 (1.5) 0.31
BMI (kg/m2) 24.1 ± 0.05 23.6 ± 0.09 <0.001
BMI ≥ 25 (yes) 36.5 (0.8) 32.2 (1.2) 0.03
WC (cm) 82.7 ± 0.2 83.6 ± 0.27 0.01
SBP (mmHg) 121.9 ± 0.32 129.3 ± 0.61 <0.001
DBP (mmHg) 79 ± 0.21 76.5 ± 0.36 <0.001
FPG (mg/dL) 99.7 ± 0.42 104.6 ± 0.86 <0.001
TC (mg/dL) 194.3 ± 0.65 192.6 ± 1.12 0.18
HDL-C (mg/dL) 52.3 ± 0.23 50.6 ± 0.39 <0.001
LDL-C (mg/dL) 114.7 ± 0.59 113.5 ± 0.92 0.26
TG* (mg/dL) 118 (115.4–120.6) 125 (120.2–130) 0.01
Present smoker (yes) 20 (0.8) 21.4 (1.3) 0.34
Drinking alcohol monthly (yes) 55.7 (0.9) 40.3 (1.3) <0.001
Regular physical exercise (yes) 22.2 (0.8) 17.8 (1.3) 0.02
Income (lowest quartile) 15.8 (0.8) 40.4 (1.6) <0.001
Education level (>13years) 61.3 (1.1) 22.6 (1.4) <0.001
Place of residence (urban) 76.8 (2.4) 61.5 (3.8) <0.001
Presence of spouse (yes) 87.5 (0.6) 70.4 (1.6) <0.001
MetS (yes) 33.2 (0.8) 48 (1.6) <0.001
WC_Mets (yes) 39.3 (0.9) 45.8 (1.3) <0.001
Daily tooth brushing (n)    <0.001
 ≤1 12.5 (0.7) 23.2 (1.4)  
 2 50.9 (1) 48.6 (1.5)  
 ≥3 36.6 (1.1) 28.2 (1.7)  
Dental visit within a year (yes) 25.9 (1) 15.1 (1.3) <0.001
Self-reported oral health status(yes)    <0.001
 1 14.4 (0.7) 7.8 (0.8)  
 2 40.7 (1) 20.5 (1.5)  
 3 44.9 (0.9) 71.7 (1.7)  
Dental pain within a year (yes) 27.7 (1) 25 (1.6) 0.12
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard error for continuous variables and percentage (standard error) for categorical variables. *P-values were obtained by independent t-tests for continuous variables or Chi-square tests for categorical variables. *Geometric mean (95% CI). Hypertension was defined as >140/90 mmHg, prehypertension as the systolic blood pressure 120–139 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure 80–89 mm Hg. Neither hypertension nor prehypertension were designated as normotension. Self-reported oral health statuses were divided into score 1 as good, 2 as moderate, and 3 as bad. Abbreviation: BMI; body mass index, WC; waist circumference, SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FBG, fasting blood glucose; TC, total cholesterol; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; TG, triglyceride, Mets; metabolic syndrome, WC_Mets; waist circumference which met the inclusion criteria for metabolic syndrome, WC ≥ 90 cm for men, and ≥80 cm for women.