Table 1 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria.

From: The limited prosocial effects of meditation: A systematic review and meta-analysis

  Inclusion Criteria Exclusion Criteria
Population Healthy adults (>18) Studies of children; studies using clinical populations
Intervention Any structured meditation program including loving kindness meditation, mindfulness-based programs (e.g. MBSR, Zen and other mindfulness-based programs) Meditation programs in which the meditation is not the foundation and most of the intervention (e.g. ACT). Any mind-body forms of exercise such as yoga, tai chi, and qi gong (chi kung); hypnosis; relaxation; pranayama
Study design Randomized control trial (RCT) Nonrandomised design and studies without a control group
Outcome variables Prosocial variables (e.g. compassionate or empathic responding, forgiveness, helping behaviour, changes in anger and aggression) Other variables
  1. Note: ACT, acceptance and commitment therapy; MBCT, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy; MBSR, mindfulness-based stress reduction; RCT, randomised clinical trial.