Cromolyn, but not ibuprofen, increased microglial activity in AD mice. (A,B) Cromolyn increased microglial activity related to β-amyloid deposits in mice. Iba1-positive microglial processes (red) colocalizing with β-amyloid deposits (green) were showed (A) and quantified (B). We represented pictures of β-amyloid deposits and Iba-1 positive microglia for the highest concentration only from each drug treatment group. Mean ± SEM; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey’s multiple comparison test. (C) Cromolyn, but not ibuprofen, promoted Aβ42 uptake in BV2 microglial cell culture studies. BV2 microglial cell cultures were treated with cromolyn and/or ibuprofen (10 μM, 100 μM, 1 mM) for 16 hours. Afterwards, cells were incubated with soluble Aβ42 and the compounds for additional 3 hours. After incubation, cells were collected for Aβ ELISA analysis. BV2 microglial cells treated with cromolyn (100 μM, 1 mM), and with combined cromolyn and ibuprofen (100 μM, 1 mM for each compound) exhibited increased Aβ42 uptake levels relative to BV2 microglia treated with vehicle. Mean ± SEM; n = 3; **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, one-way ANOVA post-hoc Tukey’s multiple comparison test.