Inflammatory cytokines are upregulated in THP-1 monocytes after transfection of the selected miRs. The induction of inflammatory cytokine mRNAs including IL6 (a), TNF (b), IL1B (c), IL10 (d) and IL18 (e) after transfection of hsa-miR-320a, hsa-miR-145-5p and a negative control to THP-1 monocytes in the presence or absence of LPS. This experiment was repeated 3 times. IL6 is significantly induced by transfection of hsa-miR-145-5p and treated with LPS compared to that of controls (a, 32.2% upregulation vs. negative control), whereas transfection of hsa-miR-320a shows similar induction level of IL6 compared to controls (ns, not significant). TNF is significantly induced by transfection of hsa-miR-320a, but not hsa-miR-145-5p (ns), and treated with LPS compared to that of controls (b, 24.4% upregulation vs. negative control). Transfection of hsa-miR-145-5p and hsa-miR-320a into THP-1 monocytes resulted in no significant changes in IL1B (c), IL10 (d) and IL18 (e) mRNA expression in the presence or absence of LPS. All values represent the mean ± SD. *P < 0.05.