Table 1 Baseline demographics and low back pain (LBP) characteristics of patients with spa therapy, exercise therapy and educational program and usual care.

From: Intensive spa and exercise therapy program for returning to work for low back pain patients: a randomized controlled trial

  Spa therapy (n = 44) Usual care (n = 43) All patients (n = 87)
Age (years), median (IQR) 47.0 (37.5;52.5) 47.0 (37.0;53.0) 47.0 (37.0;53.0)
Female, n (%) 26/44 (59.1) 25/43 (58.1) 51/87 (58.6)
Educational level, n (%)
   High school or less 29/44 (66.0) 34/43 (79.1) 63/87 (72.6)
   Higher education 15/44 (34.1) 9/43 (20.9) 24/87 (27.6)
Employment status
   Sick leave duration (months), median (IQR) 3.5 (2.1;4.5) 3.7 (1.7;4.9) 3.7 (1.8;4.9)
   Last occupation, n (%)
    Artisan, trader, manager 0/44 (0.0) 1/44 (2.3) 1/87 (1.1)
    Senior executive, intellectual profession 3/44 (6.8) 2/43 (4.7) 5/87 (5.7)
    Intermediate occupation 2/44 (4.5) 2/43 (4.7) 4/87 (4.6)
    Employee 37/44 (84.1) 34/43 (79.1) 71/87 (81.6)
    Worker 2/44 (4.5) 4/43 (9.3) 6/87 (6.9)
LBP duration (months), median (IQR) 4.6 (3.0;6.1) 5.5 (3.3;7.1)a 4.9 (3.3;6.4)
LBP intensity in the last 48 hr (NRS, 0–100), mean (SD) 58.0 (19.9) 58.7 (21.7) 58.3 (20.7)
Radicular pain intensity in the previous 48 hr (NRS, 0–100), mean (SD) 32.5 (24.6) 31.5 (27.8) 32.0 (26.1)
Main imaging finding, n (%)
   Lumbar spinal stenosis 1/44 (2.3) 0/43 (0) 1/87 (1.1)
   Facet joint osteoarthritis 1/44 (2.3) 1/43 (2.3) 2/87 (2.3)
   Spondylolisthesis 0/44 (0.0) 1/43 (2.3) 1/87 (1.1)
   Scoliosis 0/44 (0.0) 1/43 (2.3) 1/87 (1.1)
    Degenerative disc disease 25/44 (56.8) 25/43 (58.1) 50/87 (57.5)
    Discoradicular conflict 11/44 (25.0) 10/43 (23.3) 21/87 (24.1)
    Active discopathy 3/44 (6.8) 3/43 (7.0) 6/87 (6.9)
    Scheuermann’s disease 0/44 (0) 1/43 (2.3) 1/87 (1.1)
    Unspecified 3/44 (6.8) 1/43 (2.3) 4/87 (4.6)
Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (0–100), mean (SD) 49.3 (17.0)a 49.3 (14.9) 49.3 (15.9)
SF-12 PCS (0–100), mean (SD) 30.4 (5.0)a 31.2 (6.2) 30.8 (5.6)
SF-12 MCS (0–100), mean (SD) 36.9 (9.7)a 35.1 (6.9) 36.0 (8.4)
HADs anxiety score (0–21), mean (SD) 11.5 (4.0)a 11.2 (4.0) 11.4 (4.0)
HADs depression score (0–21), mean (SD) 8.8 (3.9)b 7.7 (3.2) 8.2 (3.6)
FABQ physical activity score (0–24), median (IQR) 16.0 (12.0;20.0)c 17.0 (12.0;22.0) 17.0 (12.0;20.0)
FABQ work score (0–42), median (IQR) 35.5 (29.0;39.0)a 35.0 (29.0;39.0) 35.0 (29.0;39.0)
Previous treatments, n (%)
    Analgesics 42/44 (95.5) 42/43 (97.7) 84/87 (96.6)
    NSAIDs 41/44 (93.2) 39/43 (90.7) 80/87 (92)
    Muscle relaxants 28/44 (63.6) 34/43 (79.1) 62/87 (71.3)
    Anxiolytics 12/44 (27,3) 11/43 (25.6) 23/87 (26.4)
    Antidepressants 10/44 (22.7) 11/43 (25.6) 21/87 (24.1)
    Anticonvulsants 4/44 (9.1) 8/43 (18.6) 12/87 (13.8)
    Lumbar spinal injections 20/44 (45.5) 25/43 (58.1) 45/87 (51.7)
    Lumbar brace 33/44 (75) 36/43 (83.7) 69/87 (79.3)
    Physiotherapy 35/44 (79.5) 34/43 (79.1) 69/87 (79.3)
    Rehabilitation program 6/44 (13.6) 6/43 (14) 12/87 (13.8)
    Alternative medicine 17/44 (38.6) 15/43 (34.9) 32/87 (36.8)
Time between randomization and spa therapy (days), mean (SD) 24.7 (16.8)
  1. FABQ: Fear And Beliefs Questionnaire; HADs: Hospital Anxiety Depression scale; IQR: interquartile range; MCS: mental component subscale; NRS: numeric rating scale; NSAIDs: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; PCS: physical component subscale; SF-12: Medical Outcome Survey 12-Item Short Form.
  2. an = 42, bn = 41, cn = 40.