Table 3 Studies reporting hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among populations at high risk in Iran.

From: The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Iran: Systematic review and meta-analyses

Author, year (citation) Year(s) of data collection City or country of survey Study site Study design Study sampling procedure Population Sample size HCV prevalence (%)
Abdollahi, 2008199 2003 NS Hemophilia units CS Conv Hemophilia patients 174 83.3
Aghakhani, 2009200 NS Tehran NS CS Conv HIV patients 106 67.0
Aghakhani, 2009200 NS Tehran NS CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 289 3.1
Akbari, 2011201 2003–2004 Shiraz Thalassemia center CC SRS Thalassemia patients 200 25.0
Alavi, 2005202 2002 Tehran Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 110 11.8
Alavi, 2007203 2001–2003 Ahvaz Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv PWID with HIV 104 74.0
Alavi, 2009204 2001–2006 Ahvaz Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv PWID 142 52.1
Alavi, 2012110 NS Tehran Clinical: hospital & health care centers CC Conv Thalassemia patients (<18) 90 13.3
Alavia, 2003205 NS Ghazvin Clinical: hospital & health care centers NS NS Thalassemia patients 95 24.2
Alavian, 2003206 2000–2001 NS Hemophilia units CS Conv Hemophilia patients 176 60.2
Alavian, 200894 1999 National NS NS NS Hemodialysis patients NS 14.4
Alavian, 200894 2000 National NS NS NS Hemodialysis patients NS 11.2
Alavian, 200894 2001 National NS NS NS Hemodialysis patients NS 8.8
Alavian, 200894 2002 National NS NS NS Hemodialysis patients NS 8.2
Alavian, 200894 2003 National NS NS NS Hemodialysis patients NS 6.7
Alavian, 200894 2004 National NS NS NS Hemodialysis patients NS 5.6
Alavian, 200894 2005 National NS NS NS Hemodialysis patients NS 4.8
Alavian, 200894 2006 National NS NS NS Hemodialysis patients NS 4.5
Alavian, 2015112 2012 Isfahan Hemodialysis units CC Conv Hemodialysis units 274 0
Alipour, 201361 2003–2011 Shiraz Counseling centers CS Conv HIV patients (male) 215 17.7
Alipour, 201361 2003–2011 Shiraz Counseling centers CS Conv HIV patients (female) 1,230 89.1
Alipour, 2013207 NS Mixed (Shiraz, Tehran, Mashhad) Drop in centers and rehab centers CS Conv PWID (male) 226 38.6
Alipour, 201367 2011 Shiraz Counseling centers CS SRS HIV patients 168 87.5
Alizadeh, 2005208 2002 Hamedan Prison CS SRS PWID 149 31.5
Alizadeh, 2006209 NS Hamadan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS NS Hemophilia patients 66 59.1
Ameli, 2008210 2006 Mazandaran Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 65 16.9
Amin-Esmaeili, 201257 2006–2007 Tehran Drop in centers and rehab centers CS Conv PWID 895 34.5
Amiri, 2005211 2001 Guilan Hemodialysis units CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 298 24.8
Ansar, 2002114 1997–1998 Rasht Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS SRS Thalassemia patients (female) 50 62.0
Ansar, 2002114 1997–1998 Rasht Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS SRS Thalassemia patients (male) 55 65.0
Ansar, 2002114 1997–1998 Rasht Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS SRS Hemophilia patients 93 55.9
Ansari, 2007212 2005–2006 Shiraz Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients (female) 400 16.0
Ansari, 2007212 2005–2006 Shiraz Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients (male) 406 12.8
Asl, 2013213 2003–2005 Alborz Prisons Coh Conv PWID 150 69.3
Assarehzadegan, 2012214 2008–2009 Ahvaz Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Hemophilia patients 87 54.0
Ataei, 2010215 2008–2009 Isfahan Drop in centers and rehab centers CS Conv PWID 3,284 38.0
Ataei, 201053 1998–2007 Isfahan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv HIV patients 130 77.0
Ataei, 2011216 NS Isfahan Prison, drop in centers and rehab centers CS Conv PWID 1,485 43.4
Ataei, 2011217 NS Isfahan Drop in centers and rehab centers CS Conv PWID 136 19.8
Ataei, 2012218 1996–2011 Isfahan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 463 8.0
Azarkeivan, 2010219 1996–2005 Tehran Thalassemia center CS Conv Thalassemia patients 395 27.5
Azarkeivan, 2011220 2008 Tehran Thalassemia center CS Conv Thalassemia patients 695 24.5
Azarkeivan, 201245 1996–2009 Tehran Clinical: hospital & health care centers Coh Conv Thalassemia patients 395 7.6
Babamahmoodi, 2012221 2008–2010 Mazandaran Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv HIV patients 80 58.8
Basiratnia, 2010222 1999 Shahrekord Clinical: hospital & health care centers NS NS Thalassemia patients (female) 50 22.0
Basiratnia, 2010222 1999 Shahrekord Clinical: hospital & health care centers NS NS Thalassemia patients (male) 63 23.8
Boroujerdnia, 2009223 2006–2007 Khuzestan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 206 28.1
Bozorghi, 2006224 2004 Ghazvin Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 89 6.7
Bozorgi, 2008225 2005 Ghazvin Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 207 24.2
Broumand, 2002226 NS Tehran Hemodialysis units CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 548 19.6
Company, 2007227 2005–2006 Ahvaz Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 195 20.5
Dadgaran, 2005228 NS Guilan Hemodialysis units NS NS Hemodialysis patients 393 17.8
Dadmanesh, 2015229 2012–2013 Tehran Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 138 0
Davarpanah, 2013230 2006–2007 Shiraz Counseling centers CS Conv HIV patients 226 86.7
Davoodian, 2009231 2002 Tehran Prisons CS SRS PWID 249 64.8
Eghbalian, 2000232 NS Hamedan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS NS Thalassemia patients (<15) 53 34.0
Esfahani, 2014233 2012 Hamedan Hemophilia units CS Conv Hemophilia patients 89 49.4
Eskandarieh, 2013234 NS Tehran Drop in centers and rehab centers CS Conv PWID 258 65.9
Eslamifar, 2007235 2006 Tehran Hemodialysis units CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 77 6.5
Etminani-Esfahani, 2012236 NS Tehran Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv HIV patients 98 55.1
Faramarzi, 2013237 2010 Shiraz Voluntary counseling center CS Conv HIV patients (male) 222 64.0
Faranoush, 2006238 2002 Mixed (Semnan, Damaghan, Garmsar) Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 630 39.7
Farhoudi, 2016239 2013–2014 Tehran Prison CS Conv HIV patients 56 89.3
Ghaderi, 1996240 NS Fars Blood transfusion center CS Conv Thalassemia patients 90 68.5
Ghadir, 2009241 2008 Qom Hemodialysis units CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 90 21.1
Ghafoorian-Broujerdnia, 2006242 1999–2004 Ahvaz Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 122 26.2
Ghane, 2012243 2010 Mixed (Mazandaran and Guilan) Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 245 14.7
Haghazali, 2011244 2007 Ghazvin Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Hemodialysis patients (males) 76 7.5
Hamissi, 2011245 2009 Ghazvin Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 195 6.7
Hariri, 2006246 2004 Isfahan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Hemophilia patients 120 64.0
Hariri, 2006246 2004 Isfahan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 616 10.9
Honarvar, 2013247 2012–2013 Shiraz Drop in centers and rehab centers CS Conv PWID 233 40.3
Hosseini, 201063 2006 Tehran Prison CS Conv PWID 417 80.0
Imani, 2008248 2004 Shahr-e-Kord Drop in centers and rehab centers CS Conv PWID 133 11.3
Ismail, 2005249 NS Tehran Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv PWID 65 17.0
Jabbari, 200846 2005–2006 Golestan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 93 24.7
Joukar, 2011250 2009 Guilan Hemodialysis units CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 514 11.9
Kaffashian, 2011251 NS Isfahan Prison CS Conv PWID 951 42.0
Kalantari, 2011252 2008–2010 Isfahan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 545 9.1
Kalantari, 2011252 2008–2010 Isfahan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Hemophilia patients 615 80.5
Kalantari, 2014253 2010–2011 Isfahan Hemodialysis units CS Cluster sampling Hemodialysis patients 499 5.2
Karimi, 2001254 1999–2001 Shiraz Thalassemia center CS Conv Thalassemia patients 466 15.7
Karimi, 2001255 1999–2001 Shiraz Hemophilia unit CS Conv Hemophilia patients 281 15.7
Karimi, 2002256 2002 Shiraz Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Coagulation disorder patients 367 13.1
Kashef, 2008257 NS Tabriz Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 131 18.3
Kassaian, 2011258 2009 Isfahan Thalassemia center CS Conv Thalassemia patients 570 10.5
Kassaian, 2011258 2009 Isfahan Hemodialysis unit CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 800 2.1
Kassaian, 201258 2009 Isfahan Prison CS Conv PWID 943 41.6
Keramat, 2011259 2005–2007 Hamadan Counseling center CS Conv PWID 199 63.3
Keshvari, 2014260 2008–2010 Tehran Thalassemia center CS Conv Thalassemia patients 257 40.1
Khani, 2003261 2001 Zanjan Prison CS Conv PWID 346 50.9
Kheirandish, 200952 2006 Tehran Prison CS Conv PWID 454 80.0
Khorvash, 2008262 2005 Isfahan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv PWID 92 74.3
Khosravi, 2010263 NS Shiraz Counseling center CS Conv HIV patients 101 86.1
Kiakalayeh, 2013264 2002–2011 Rasht Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 1,113 10.5
Lak, 2000265 NS Tehran Hemophilia units CS Conv Hemophilia patients 100 90.0
Lak, 2000265 NS Tehran Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv VWD patient 385 55.1
Langarodi, 2011266 2009–2010 Karaj Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 206 14.1
Mahdaviani, 2008267 2004 Markazi Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Hemophilia patients 68 36.7
Mahdaviani, 2008267 2004 Markazi Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 97 7.2
Mahdavimazdeh, 2009268 2005 Tehran Hemodialysis units CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 2,403 9.5
Mak, 2001269 NS Isfahan Hemodialysis units CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 86 31.1
Makhlough, 2008270 2006 Sari and Ghaemshahr, Mazandaran Hemodialysis units CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 186 11.3
Mansour-Ghanaei,2002271 1999 Guilan Hemophilia units CS Conv Hemophilia patients 101 71.3
Mansour-Ghanaei,2009272 2007 Rasht Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 163 10.4
Mansour-Ghanaei,2009273 NS Guilan Thalassemia center CS Conv Thalassemia patients 370 50.4
Mashayekhi, 2011274 2008–2009 Tabriz Thalassemia center CS Conv Thalassemia patients 100 3.0
Mehrjerdi, 201468 2011 Tehran Drop in centers and rehab centers CS Conv PWID 209 26.8
Meidani, 2009275 2007–2008 Isfahan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv PWID 150 26.0
Mirahmadizadeh, 2004276 NS Shiraz NS CS NS PWID 186 80.1
Mirahmadizadeh, 2009277 NS National Drop in centers and rehab centers CS SRS PWID 1,531 43.4
Mirmomen, 2006278 2002 Mixed (Tehran, Kerman, Ghazvin, Semnan, Zanjan) Blood transfusion centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 732 19.6
Mir-Nasseri, 200562 2001–2002 Tehran Drop in centers and rehab centers CS NS PWID 467 66.0
Mir-Nasseri, 201155 2001–2002 Tehran Prison, drop in centers and rehab centers CS Conv PWID 518 69.3
Mobini, 2010279 2006 Yazd Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Hemophilia patients 77 49.4
Mohammadi, 2009280 2007–2008 Lorestan NS CS Conv HIV patients 391 72.1
Momen-Heravi, 2012281 NS Kashan Drop in centers and rehab centers CS Cluster sampling PWID 300 47.3
Mousavi, 2002282 NS NS NS NS NS Thalassemia patients 81 27.2
Mousavian, 2011283 2003–2005 Tehran Hemophilia units CS Conv Hemophilia patients 1,095 72.3
Naini, 2007284 1993–2006 Isfahan Hemophilia units CS Conv Hemophilia patients 553 22.6
Najafi, 2001285 1998 Qaemshahr Thalassemia centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 100 18.0
Rahbar, 2004176 2001 Mashhad Prison CC Conv PWID 101 59.4
Rahimi-Movaghar, 2010286 2006–2007 Tehran Drop in centers and rehab centers CS Snowball sampling PWID 899 34.5
Ramezani, 2008287 2005–2006 Tehran Counseling center CS Conv HIV patients 171 52.6
Ramezani, 2009288 NS Tehran Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv HIV patients 91 68.5
Ramzani, 2014289 2012 Arak Drop in centers and rehab centers CS Conv PWID 100 56.0
Rostami, 2013290 2010–2011 Mixed Hemodialysis units CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 3963 1.3
Rostami-Jalilian, 2006291 2002–2004 Isfahan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv PWID with thrombosis 72 45.8
Rostami-Jalilian, 2006291 2002–2004 Isfahan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv PWID without thrombosis 76 34.2
Sabour, 2003292 1999–2000 Kermanshah Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 140 26.4
Saleh, 2011293 2007–2008 Hamedan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CC Conv PWID (corpses) 94 60.6
Salehi, 201569 2006–2011 Shiraz Drop in centers and rehab centers CS Conv PWID 1,327 13.5
Sali, 2013294 2010–2012 Tehran Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv HIV patients 200 71.0
Samak, 2012295 2007 Qom Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 142 13.4
Samarbaf-Zadeh, 2015296 NS Khuzestan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 430 9.1
Samimi-Rad, 2007297 2004 Markazi Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients (male) 50 4.0
Samimi-Rad, 2007297 2004 Markazi Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Patients with Inherited bleeding disorder 76 43.4
Samimi-Rad, 2007298 2005 Isfahan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Hemophilia patients 50 100.0
Samimi-Rad, 2007298 2005 Isfahan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 53 100.0
Samimi-Rad, 2008299 2005 Markazi Hemodialysis units CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 204 4.9
Sanei, 2004300 2002 Zahedan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients 364 13.5
Sani, 2012301 2007–2009 Mashhad Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv PWID 62 71.0
Sarkari, 201259 2009–2010 Mixed (Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad) NS CS Conv PWID 158 42.2
SeyedAlinaghi, 2011302 2004–2005 Tehran Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv HIV patients 201 67.2
Seyrafian, 2006303 2005 Isfahan Hemodialysis units CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 556 2.9
Shahshahani, 2006304 NS Yazd NS CS NS Hemophilia patients 74 48.6
Shahshahani, 2006304 NS Yazd NS CS NS Thalassemia patients 85 9.4
Sharif, 2009305 2001–2006 Kashan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv PWID 200 12.0
Sharifi-Mood, 2006306 1986–2005 Zahedan Hemophilia units CS Conv Hemophilia patients 74 31.1
Sharifi-Mood, 2007307 2003–2006 Zahedan Hemophilia units CS Conv Hemophilia patients 81 29.6
Siavash, 2008308 2007 Kermanshah Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv HIV patients 888 3.9
Sofian, 2012309 2009 Markazi Prison CS Conv PWID 153 59.5
Somi, 2007310 2006 Tabriz Hemodialysis units CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 462 14.9
Somi, 2014311 2012 Tabriz Hemodialysis units CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 455 8.1
Taremi, 2005312 2004 Tabriz Hemodialysis units CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 324 20.4
Tayeri, 2008313 2000–2007 Isfahan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv PWID with HIV 106 75.5
Taziki, 2008314 2001 Mazandaran Hemodialysis units CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 348 18.0
Taziki, 2008314 2006 Mazandaran Hemodialysis units CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 497 12.0
Toosi, 2007315 NS Tehran Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 130 8.5
Torabi, 2005316 2003 Azerbaijan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Thalassemia patients (<18) 84 7.1
Torabi, 2006317 2003 Azerbaijan Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Hemophilia patients 130 55.4
Vahidi, 2000195 1996 Kerman Clinical: hospital & health care centers CC Conv Thalassemia patients 107 22.4
Valizadeh, 2013318 2010 Urmia Hemophilia units CS Conv Hemophilia patients 50 6.0
Yazdani, 2012319 1996–2010 Isfahan Hemophilia units CS Conv Hemophilia patients 350 66.0
Zadeh, 2007320 2007 Tehran NS CS Conv PWID (males) 70 36.0
Zahedi, 2004321 2002 Kerman Clinical: hospital & health care centers CS Conv Hemophilia patients 97 44.3
Zahedi, 2012322 2010 Kerman Hemodialysis centers CS Conv Hemodialysis patients 228 3.0
Zali, 2001323 1995 Tehran Prison CS SRS PWID (male) 402 45.0
Zamani, 200751 2004 Tehran Community, drop in centers and rehab centers CS Conv PWID 202 52.0
Zamani, 201064 2008 Foulad-Shahr City Drop in centers and rehab centers CS Snowball sampling PWID 117 60.7
Ziaee, 2005324 2000 Khorasan Drop in centers and rehab centers CS Conv Hemophilia patients 80 55.0
Ziaee, 2007325 NS South Khorassan Hemophilia units CS Conv Hemophilia patients 80 26.3
Ziaee, 2015326 2010–2012 Birjand Hemophilia units CS Conv Hemophilia patients 108 20.4
  1. aAbbreviations: CC, case-control; Coh, cohort; Conv, convenience; CS, cross-sectional; NS, not specified; PWID, people who inject drugs; SRS, simple random sampling; VWD, von Willebrand disease.
  2. bThe decimal places of the prevalence figures are as reported in the original reports, but prevalence figures with more than one decimal places were rounded to one decimal place, with the exception of those below 1%.