Heat maps showing the development and stabilisation of routes between feeders. The nest position is represented by an open circle and the positions of the feeders by closed circles. The colour of each pixel represents the probability that the bee passed over that point in the landscape as estimated from the radar tracks using a Brownian bridges technique (described in Methods). Each pixel represents an area 5 × 5 m. Scale bars represent a distance of 25 m. Each panel represents the cumulative probability map of one bee’s location over 5 consecutive bouts. The first column shows the activity of bee 1 at three levels of foraging experience; the other columns show bees 2, 3 and 5 respectively. Bees 4 and 6 did not complete enough foraging bouts to investigate how their routes developed with experience; their initial foraging bouts are shown in Supplementary Fig. S202. (a–d) Cumulative activity of bees 1–3 and 5 respectively, over the course of their first 5 foraging bouts on the experimental array. All bees travelled widely over the area bounded by the nest and four closest feeders, and made many exploratory flights beyond the area of the array; (e–h) Cumulative activity of bees 1–3 and 5 respectively, over their last 5 foraging bouts on the first day of tracking. The bees’ activity within the area of the array was now largely restricted to narrow corridors between feeders and flights beyond the array were much reduced. The furthest feeder was visited more regularly than during the initial bouts. (i–k) Cumulative activity of bees 1–3 respectively, over their last 5 foraging bouts on the second day of tracking; bee 5 was only recorded for one day. Routes within the array were further refined. Bee 2 showed a resurgence of flights beyond the area of the array.