Figure 1 | Scientific Reports

Figure 1

From: Tunable geometrical frustration in magnonic vortex crystals

Figure 1

Illustration of the emergent ice rule in magnonic vortex crystals. (a) Schematic representation of the investigated vortex system. The black and white dots represent the polarization of the vortices. The blue arrows illustrate the analogy of two vortices with alternating polarizations to a nanoisland in artificial spin ice systems. (b) Possible configurations of six vortices in a junction depicted by blue arrows. Configurations that obey the ice rule have two arrows pointing towards the junction and one pointing out of it or vice versa. If all three arrows point in or out of the junction the ice rule is broken. (c) Possible polarization configurations of the vortices of a triple, where white and black dots represent a polarization of p = +1 and p = −1, respectively. The exciting magnetic field breaks the symmetry. It is distinguished between four different triple types. For triple type I-III the ice rule is obeyed, for triple type IV the ice rule is broken.