Ts1-S14R-AuNP provides time-stable generation of action potentials by photostimulation in isolated neurons. (a) Voltage recordings from a typical current clamp experiment in a DRG neuron showing action potentials elicited by a 800 pA current injection, followed by action potentials elicited by a 100 mW, 1 ms 532 nm laser pulse only after AuNPs were presented. Trace numbers denote a representative time point identified in part b. (b) Time course of the photosensitivity provided by Ts1-S14R-AuNP, showing resting potential values and peak response to the laser pulse over time. The green bar denotes the period of perfusion with Ts1-S14R-AuNP.