Table 3 Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between dog breed groups and CVD outcomes in the National cohort using Cox proportional hazards regression with attained age as time-scale.

From: Dog ownership and the risk of cardiovascular disease and death – a nationwide cohort study

Breed Groups Composite Cardiovascular Disease1 All-Cause Mortality
Crude HR2 Adjusted HR3 Crude HR2 Adjusted HR3
Sheep and cattle dogs 0.99 (0.95–1.03) 1.02 (0.98–1.07) 0.76 (0.73–0.80) 0.84 (0.80–0.88)
Pinscher and schnauzer dogs 0.91 (0.87–0.95) 0.97 (0.93–1.02) 0.68 (0.64–0.72) 0.78 (0.74–0.82)
Terriers 0.88 (0.84–0.92) 0.95 (0.91–0.99) 0.70 (0.67–0.74) 0.81 (0.78–0.86)
Dachshunds 0.88 (0.83–0.93) 0.94 (0.89–1.00) 0.67 (0.63–0.71) 0.76 (0.72–0.81)
Spitz and primitive types 0.97 (0.92–1.02) 0.98 (0.94–1.03) 0.68 (0.65–0.72) 0.72 (0.68–0.76)
Scent hounds and related dogs 0.90 (0.86–0.95) 0.93 (0.88–0.97) 0.58 (0.55–0.62) 0.63 (0.60–0.67)
Pointing dogs 0.84 (0.77–0.93) 0.90 (0.82–1.00) 0.52 (0.46–0.59) 0.60 (0.53–0.68)
Retrievers 0.83 (0.80–0.86) 0.90 (0.87–0.94) 0.63 (0.60–0.66) 0.74 (0.71–0.77)
Companion and toy dogs 1.00 (0.96–1.03) 1.04 (1.01–1.08) 0.77 (0.74–0.80) 0.85 (0.82–0.89)
Sight hounds 0.97 (0.83–1.14) 1.02 (0.87–1.18) 0.76 (0.64–0.90) 0.83 (0.70–0.99)
Mixed Pedigree4 1.12 (1.08–1.16) 1.13 (1.09–1.17) 0.93 (0.90–0.97) 0.98 (0.94–1.01)
  1. 1Composite CVD comprises all ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, hemorrhagic stroke and heart failure. 2Adjusted for sex. 3Adjusted for sex, marital status, presence of children in the home, population density, area of residence, region of birth, income and latitude. 4Group comprising all non-pure pedigree dogs.