Table 2 Hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) examining associations between dog ownership and CVD outcomes in the National Cohort (n = 3,432,153) using Cox proportional hazards regression with attained age as time-scale.

From: Dog ownership and the risk of cardiovascular disease and death – a nationwide cohort study

Cardiovascular disease Number of events Person-years at risk Crude1 HR (95% CI) Adjusted2 HR (95% CI)
Acute Myocardial Infarction 172,999 37,773,460 0.93 (0.92–0.96) 0.97 (0.95–0.99)
Ischemic Stroke 136,305 37,866,672 0.94 (0.92–0.96) 0.98 (0.96–1.01)
Hemorrhagic Stroke 41,286 38,274,834 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 1.02 (0.98–1.07)
Heart failure 107,843 38,089,903 0.93 (0.90–0.96) 1.01 (0.98–1.05)
Composite CVD3 399,600 36,910,720 0.94 (0.93–0.96) 0.99 (0.98–1.01)
CVD mortality4 76,106 38,408,267 0.68 (0.65–0.71) 0.77 (0.73–0.80)
All–Cause mortality 502,896 38,408,267 0.72 (0.71–0.73) 0.80 (0.79–0.82)