Origin and expansion of the Ashkenazi Levite Y chromosome clade. The suggested gradual movement and expansion pattern of the Ashkenazi Levite haplogroup R1a-Y2619 are denoted by ascending numerical labels. An ancestral origin in the Middle East (1) is followed by a migration route (purple arrows) paralleling the dispersal of Ashkenazi Jews to Europe (2). Expansion within the Ashkenazi Jewish population in Europe (3) is followed by a paternal gene flow of R1a-Y2619 Y chromosomes to non-Ashkenazi Jewish communities (4). A second theoretical expansion route of Levites from the Middle East to Europe (5) via the expansion of non-Ashkenazi Jews is shown but not supported by the obtained results. Map data is from ©2017 Google Maps.