Global map showing the amount of organic matter in sedimentary rocks ejected if the Chicxulub asteroid hit various locations at the end of the Cretaceous. Shaded areas denote the following burned organic carbon weights in each area burned by the asteroid impact: white: <22,000 Tg; olive: 22,000–89,000 Tg; orange: 89,000–220,000 Tg; and magenta: 220,000–890,000 Tg. These areas correspond to 0–4 °C, 4–8 °C, 8–11 °C, and ≥11 °C cooling (global mean surface air temperature anomalies) and 0–6 °C, 6–13 °C, 13–17 °C, and ≥17 °C cooling on land by soot only, respectively, when the asteroid hit each area (Table 3). Mass extinction could have been caused by 8–11 °C or more cooling1 when the asteroid hit an orange or magenta area, which occupied approximately 13% of the Earth’s surface. The map is based on Courtillot et al.53; thin lines indicate continental crust shelf edges.