Figure 3 | Scientific Reports

Figure 3

From: Complex furrows in a 2D epithelial sheet code the 3D structure of a beetle horn

Figure 3

Physical extension of the horn primordial. (a,b) Unfolding of an intact horn primordia. (a) The prepupal horn primordia was exposed by artificially removing the head cuticle. (b) The horn primordia was unfolded (within one minute) as a result of pushing the prepupal abdomen, thereby increasing heamolymph pressure. The bifurcated 3D shape of the thus unfolded horn is very similar to that of the natural pupal horn. (c,d) Unfolding of a chemically fixed horn primordia. (c) The dissected horn primordia was fixed with formalin and connected to a plastic tube. (d) The horn primordia was blown up (within seconds) as a result of air pressure unfolding the furrows. Its extended shape and size strongly resemble the natural pupal horn.