Figure 1: | Scientific Reports

Figure 1

From: Complex furrows in a 2D epithelial sheet code the 3D structure of a beetle horn

Figure 1

Pupation and horn primordia of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus. (a) Horn primordia of Trypoxylus dichotomus. Larval cuticle was removed. (b) Ventral view of a male Trypoxylus dichotomus pupa. The large horn appears at this stage. (c) Ventral view of a male Trypoxylus dichotomus adult. Note that both length and shape of the adult horn remain basically unchanged from its pupal form. (d) Time lapse images of pupal molt. Larval cuticle was removed within 30 min after initiation of the molting process. Unfolding of the horn primordia by internal haemolymph pressure was mostly completed within two hours.