Effect of PUF60 on HBV production. (a) Particle-associated HBV DNA in culture supernatants of cells transfected with pUC-HB-Ce and pcDNA-F-PUF60 or empty vector (EV) was quantitatively measured at days 2 and 5 pt. (b) After 12 h of transfection with pcDNA-F-PUF60 or EV, HepG2-hNTCP-C4 cells were infected with HBV and cultured for 5 days, and total cellular RNA was analyzed by RT-qPCR to determine levels of 3.5 kb RNA (left) and spRNAs (right). (a) and (b) Values shown represent means ± SD obtained from three independent samples. Statistical differences compared with the control (EV) are shown. *p < 0.05, Student’s t test.