Conduction chamber design and electric stimulation of the nerve. (a) Schematic of the conduction chamber. The nerve (not shown) is placed atop the metal pins and the open central conductor of the coaxial line. (b) A photo of the chamber, with the approximate position of the nerve shown by a dashed line. (c) Scattering parameters of the conduction chamber. Modules of the reflection and transmission coefficients (|S11| and |S21|, respectively) over frequency as obtained from HFSS simulations (solid lines) and from VNA measurements (dashed lines). (d) The shape of the 12-ns pulse (top), with the width of 12–14 ns at 50% height, and the spectrum of an ideal pulse used for simulations (10 ns plateau, 1 ns rise and fall times).