Figure 3 | Scientific Reports

Figure 3

From: Development of an ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation system for the Venusian atmosphere

Figure 3

(a) Horizontal and (b) vertical distributions of temperature deviation ‘\({\bf{T}}^{\prime} \)’ obtained from zonally averaged temperature (colour shades; K) associated with the thermal tide for Case Vmc at day 87 midnight noon. Prime indicates disturbance from its zonal mean. In Case Vmc, real observations based on the Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) onboard the Venus Express are assimilated. The slowly varying components (thermal tide) are extracted using a low-pass filter with a cut-off period longer than four Earth days. In panel (a), a horizontal distribution of horizontal winds ‘U’ (zonal) and ‘V’ (meridional) at 70 km is also depicted (black vectors; unit: 25 m s−1; zonal wind is a deviation from its zonal mean). In panel (b), a vertical distribution of zonal wind deviation ‘\({\rm{U}}^{\prime} \)’ from its zonal mean at the equator is depicted (black contours; intervals are 1 m s−1).