Figure 2 | Scientific Reports

Figure 2

From: Development of an ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation system for the Venusian atmosphere

Figure 2

Horizontal and vertical distributions of temperature (T; colour shades; K) for Cases (a,b) Qz, (c,d) Qt at day 30 midnight and (e,f) H24 at day 57 noon. Prime indicates the disturbance from its zonal mean. The slowly varying components are extracted using a low-pass filter (applying running mean) with a cut-off period longer than four Earth days. In panels (a,c and e), horizontal distributions of horizontal winds ‘U’ (zonal) and ‘V’ (meridional) at 70 km are depicted (black vectors; unit: 25 m s−1). In panels (b,d and f), vertical distributions of zonal wind at the equator are depicted (black contours; intervals are 20 m s−1 for (d) and 10 m s−1 for (b and f), respectively). Cases Qt and Qz are the Venusian Atmospheric GCM for the Earth Simulator (VAFES) runs with and without the diurnal component of solar heating, respectively. Note that the thermal tide is directly excited by solar heating in Case Qt but not in Case Qz.