Figure 1 | Scientific Reports

Figure 1

From: Circadian clock-dependent increase in salivary IgA secretion modulated by sympathetic receptor activation in mice

Figure 1

The circadian rhythm dynamics of salivary IgA secretion. (a) Salivary IgA secretion rhythms in the case of administration of either pilocarpine (control) or a mixture of pilocarpine and norepinephrine (NE) (n = 8–10). (b) Saliva flow rhythms in control versus NE groups (n = 8–10). (c) Salivary IgA volume rhythms. Data were calculated by multiplying the results from Fig. 1a and b (n = 8–10). (d) Salivary IgA concentration rhythms in control versus NE groups (control, n = 4; NE, n = 9–10). (e) Total protein concentration rhythms in saliva (control, n = 4; NE, n = 9–10). (f) Salivary IgA concentration rhythms were normalized to total protein concentration (control, n = 4; NE, n = 9–10). (g) Salivary IgA concentration rhythms in mice fasted for 24 hours (n = 9–12). Values are shown as the means ± SEM. (a,c,d) **p < 0.01, NE group ZT6 vs. ZT18 (one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test). (f) *p < 0.05, NE group ZT6 vs. ZT18 (Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn post-hoc test). (g) ***p < 0.001 **p < 0.01, NE group ZT0, ZT6 vs. ZT18 (one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test), #p < 0.05, cont. group ZT6 vs. ZT18 (Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn post-hoc test).