CitH3 is a specific biomarker to distinguish LPSS from HS. Mice were subjected to HS (30% hemorrhage without resuscitation) and blood samples were collected at 0.5, 3, 12, and 24 hours after HS for detection of CitH3 (A), PCT (B), IL-1β (C) and IL-6 (D) by ELISA. Animals from Sham group received all procedures except cannulation and hemorrhage. CitH3 protein serves as a positive control in panel A. No circulating CitH3 was detectable by ELISA. HS did not alter the blood concentration of PCT compared to Sham group. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β & IL-6) elevated greatly compared to Sham. Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation (SD). (n = 3–5/group). IL-1β: interlukine-1β; IL-6: interlukine-6; CitH3: Citrullinated histone H3; LPS: Lipopolysaccharide; DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide. PCT: procalcitonin; HS: hemorrhagic shock. CTL (+): positive control.