Annual loss costs from flooding for properties with and without marshes, by elevation class. Annual loss costs are shown for properties with marshes and without marshes, from −0.5 to +1.5 m above the NAVD88 sea-level datum. Coloured bars show the range of loss costs for each class. Black dots represent the mean loss costs and black bars represent one standard deviation from the mean. Numbers on top of each bar give the number of properties assessed. For full range of elevations see Fig. SI 3. Annual loss costs represent the losses to a property normalised by the insurable value of the property and expressed per US $1,000 (for the year 2012). Here all properties are assumed to have an insurable value of US $1,000,000. We do not show loss cost values less than 0.1 (i.e. annual losses less than $100 per $1,000,000 property).