Figure 5 | Scientific Reports

Figure 5

From: Atmospheric deposition, CO2, and change in the land carbon sink

Figure 5

Temporal contribution of the predictor variables on NEP, GPP and Re, for the period 1995–2011. Models (see Supplementary Information, section 2.1.1–2.1.3) suggest that increasing CO2 is the main contributor to the observed increases in NEP and GPP. The difference between the modelled contributions and the observed trends (yellow shaded) has been considered as an unknown contribution to the temporal variation in C fluxes. The temporal variations of the predictors are shown in Fig. 3. Error bars indicate standard errors. Units are ppm for CO2, kg ha−1 yr−1 for S and N deposition, °C for temperature and standard deviation for SPEI. Data for forest C fluxes came from eddy-covariance towers. Error bars indicate standard errors. See Methods for information about the methodology used to calculate the contributions. Significance levels: (*) P < 0.1; *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001.