Figure 4 | Scientific Reports

Figure 4

From: Evidence for ice-ocean albedo feedback in the Arctic Ocean shifting to a seasonal ice zone

Figure 4

Schematic of ice and heat budgets during seasonal ice retreat. Mean ice conditions and heat budgets for the two periods (a) 1979–1999 and (b) 2000–2014 are shown. Divergent ice motion in the early melt season induces a small reduction in ice concentration (upper panel). A key finding is that although the direct contribution of doubled divergent ice motion after 2000 to the ice concentration reduction is small, this trigger accelerates ice melt through the enhanced solar heat input over the open water fraction (ice-ocean albedo feedback) until the end of August (lower panel). All values in the lower panel are ones accumulated from May to August and standardized as heat per unit area (MJ m−2), and the volume of ice is converted to the equivalent heat required for ice melt.