Table 2 Post-water cardiovascular- and autonomic responses relative to baseline values and presented as a delta (Δ).

From: Water ingestion decreases cardiac workload time-dependent in healthy adults with no effect of gender

  Δ 0–30 min post-drink Δ 30–60 min post-drink Δ 0–60 min post-drink
Heart rate, beats*min−1 −2.2 ± 0.5*** −1.1 ± 0.6@ −1.7 ± 0.5***
  % change −3.3 ± 0.7*** −1.4 ± 1.0# −2.4 ± 0.8**
Systolic BP, mmHg −1.7 ± 0.6** +1.2 ± 0.7# −0.3 ± 0.6
  % change −1.5 ± 0.6* +1.2 ± 0.6# −0.2 ± 0.5
Diastolic BP, mmHg +0.1 ± 0.4 +1.6 ± 0.6**@ +0.8 ± 0.4
  % change +0.2 ± 0.6 +2.2 ± 0.8**@ +1.2 ± 0.6*
Stroke volume, mL +1.8 ± 0.7* +1.2 ± 0.7 +1.5 ± 0.7*
  % change +2.1 ± 0.8* +1.4 ± 0.9 +1.7 ± 0.8*
Double product, mmHg*beats*min−1 −353 ± 76*** −63 ± 99# −208 ± 82*
  % change −4.8 ± 1.0*** −0.1 ± 1.3# −2.5 ± 1.1*
Cardiac output, L*min−1 −0.08 ± 0.04 −0.02 ± 0.04¦ −0.05 ± 0.04
  % change −1.5 ± 0.7* −0.3 ± 0.8¦ −0.9 ± 0.7
Total peripheral resistance, mmHg*min*L−1 +0.2 ± 0.1 +0.4 ± 0.2* +0.3 ± 0.1*
  % change +1.2 ± 0.8 +2.3 ± 0.9* +1.7 ± 0.8*
Index of contractility, 1000*s−2 −0.3 ± 0.6 −0.1 ± 0.6 −0.2 ± 0.6
  % change −0.7 ± 1.0 −0.4 ± 1.1 −0.6 ± 1.0
HF_RRI_LN, ln ms2 +0.4 ± 0.1*** +0.2 ± 0.1**# +0.3 ± 0.1***
  % change +6.6 ± 1.1*** +3.6 ± 1.2**# +5.1 ± 1.1***
Baroreflex sensitivity, ms*mmHg−1 +1.1 ± 0.7 +2.0 ± 1.2 +1.5 ± 0.9
  % change +6.5 ± 2.3** +11.3 ± 3.7***@ +8.9 ± 3.0***
  1. Values are means ± SEM (standard error of the mean); BP: blood pressure; HF-RRI_LN: high frequency component of RR-interval; ln: natural logarithm; Δ 0–30 min, Δ 30–60 min, and Δ 0–60 min: 0 minutes denotes four minutes after the water drink with calculating a subsequent average over the following 30 minutes, 30 to 60 minutes, and 0 to 60 minutes post-drink, respectively, which were subtracted from each baseline level and presented as deltas. * P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.005 statistical significant differences using a paired student’s t-Test, where each post-drink period was compared to its baseline values. ¦ P < 0.05, @ P < 0.01, and # P < 0.005 statistical significant differences using a paired student’s t-Test comparing the changes over 0–30 min with the changes over 30–60 min post-drink.