Left panels A–C: Time course of changes (Δ) from baseline in stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR), respectively. Open circle (○) = men; closed diamond (♦) = women; closed square (■) = combined men and women. Right panels D–F represent mean percentage changes in SV, CO and TPR relative to baseline. Time 0 denotes four minutes after the water drink with calculating a subsequent average over the following 30 minutes, 30 to 60 minutes, and 0 to 60 minutes post-drink, respectively, which were subtracted from each baseline level and presented as deltas. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.005 statistically significant differences over time from baseline values (left and right panels). ¦
P < 0.05 statistically significant difference between men and women at 30–60 min post-drink (right panel). All values are reported as means ± SEM.