Left panels A–C: Time course of changes (Δ) from baseline in heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and double product (DP), respectively. Open circle (○) = men; closed diamond (♦) = women; closed square (■) = combined men and women. Right panels D, E, F represent mean percentage changes in HR, SBP and DP relative to baseline. Time 0 denotes four minutes after the water drink with calculating a subsequent average over the following 30 minutes, 30 to 60 minutes, and 0 to 60 minutes post-drink, respectively, which were subtracted from each baseline level and presented as deltas. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.005 statistically significant differences over time from baseline values (left and right panels), #
P < 0.005 statistically significant difference between 0–30 min and 30–60 min post-drink period (right panel). All values are reported as means ± SEM.