Table 2 LUCAS soil measurements and their relation to primary soil cycles, threats and when they are to be sampled; modified from ref. 69.

From: Soil natural capital in europe; a framework for state and change assessment

Soil para-meters measured in LUCAS Soil Cycles Soil Threats LUCAS sample Year
Carbon cycle Nutrient cycle Water and Energy balance Soil for-mation/erosion soil erosion by water, soil erosion by wind, decline in soil organic matter in peat, decline in soil organic matter in mineral soils, soil comp-action, sealing, conta-mination, salini-zation deserti-fication floo-ding and land-slides decline in soil biodi-versity 2009 2015 2018 2021 2024
Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) + +   + # # # # #       # ++ ++   ++  
Soil Inorganic Carbon (SIC) + +               ++ ++   ++  
pH + +      # #    # #     ++ ++   ++  
Texture, and coarse fragments + + + + # # # # #        ++ ++    
NPK   +               ++ ++   ++  
CEC   +               ++ ++   ++  
EC   +           #      ++   ++  
Sulphate sulphur, Na   +          #         ++  
Heavy metals            #      ++   ++   ++
Nitrate Nitrogen   +          #        ++ ++  
Organic Pollutants            #        ++ ++  
Thickness of peat +     # #              ++  
Soil erosion + +   + # #              ++  
Soil bulk density + +    # #    #      #     ++ ++  
Soil moisture + + +   # #    #      #     ++ ++  
Soil biodiversity                #    ++ ++  
Land cover          # # # # # #   CORINE DATABASE
Extent accounts          * * * * * * *      
Mass accounts * * * * * * * *