Exosomes from bovine milk are enriched with exosomal markers. (a) A heatmap showing enrichment of exosomal marker proteins in colostrum and MM exosomes. The scaled expression of each protein, denoted as the row Z-score, is plotted in the red–blue colour scale. High expression levels are indicated in red and low expression levels are shown in blue. Similar to western blot analysis, Alix (PDCD6IP) was found to be of higher abundance in the colostrum samples when compared with the MM samples. The 72 h colostrum samples had a higher level of many of the ESCRT component proteins. (b) Higher abundance of Rab family proteins was observed in both colostrum and MM exosomes. (c) An enrichment of integrins, which play a crucial role in exosomal uptake by target cells was observed in all the exosomes.