Figure 1 | Scientific Reports

Figure 1

From: Lack of Social Support Raises Stress Vulnerability in Rats with a History of Ancestral Stress

Figure 1

(A) Experimental design to induce multigenerational and adulthood stress in F4 females. Left: Animals of the parental generation (generation 0; F0) and their prenatally stressed pregnant daughters (filial generations 1–3; F1-F3) also received stress during late gestation. Right: the F4 generation that originated from a stressed maternal lineage received a stress challenge in adulthood while housed in standard paired housing conditions (MS + S-SH), socially secluded by singular housing (MS + S-SI), or received environmental enrichment with toys while being housed alone (MS + S-SI + T). (B) Stress and social isolation limit weight gain in ancestrally stressed rats. Grey-square zone indicates the 21-day stress period. Only MS + S-SI and MS + S-SI + T groups failed to gain weight during stress. A significant difference was observed between NMS-SH and MS + S-SI groups on the last day of stress exposure. Asterisks indicate significant difference between NMS + S-SI and MS+S-SI groups: *p ≤ 0.05. Error bars show ± SEM.