Nopal consumption decreases oxidative stress and improves cognitive function. (A) Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the prefrontal cortex, (B) abeta1–40 peptide in the ventral CA1 region, (C) spontaneous alternations and latency time, (D) glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the stratum oriens and the stratum radiatum, (E) spine density in dendrites of the CA1 region, and (F) morphology of dendritic spines in the CA1 region. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 5/group). Comparisons among groups were analysed by 2-way ANOVA followed by Fisher’s PLSD test. Different letters indicate significant differences among groups (a > b > c > d).