Figure 1 | Scientific Reports

Figure 1

From: Biomaterial-Free Three-Dimensional Bioprinting of Cardiac Tissue using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes

Figure 1

Schematic overview of biomaterial-free cardiac 3D bioprinting process. (A) Cells (CMs, FBs, ECs) are aggregated in ultra-low attachment 96-well plates to form cardiospheres. (B) The desired 3D structure to be bioprinted is designed using computer software. (C) The 3D bioprinter picks up individual cardiospheres using vacuum suction and loads them onto a needle array. (D) Cardiospheres are allowed to fuse. The 3D bioprinted cardiac tissue is then removed from the needle array, and cultured further to allow the needle holes to be filled in by surrounding tissue.

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