Table 1 Children with MLD were matched across groups (sham vs. tRNS) by their age, gender, mathematical abilities, and working memory capacity.

From: Transcranial random noise stimulation and cognitive training to improve learning and cognition of the atypically developing brain: A pilot study

Controlled variable tRNS sham Differences between groups
Age (months) Mean (SD) 114.8 (6.6) 112.8 (8.5) t(10) = 0.46, p > 0.66
Gender 5 boys, 1 girl 5 boys, 1 girl χ²(1) = 0, p = 1
Mathematical performance Mean (SD) 13.5 (8.2) 13.2 (5.5) t(10) = 0.08 p > 0.94
Equivalent Mathematical Age (SD) 87.8 (15.2) 88.8 (10.6) t(10) = −0.13, p > 0.9
Working memory Mean (SD)
Verbal
 Forward 4.67 (0.52) 4.17 (0.98) t(10) = 1.1, p > 0.3
 Backward 2.67 (0.81) 2.5 (0.55) t(10) = 0.41, p > 0.69
Visuospatial
 Forward 4.17 (0.98) 3.83 (1.33) t(10) = 0.49, p > 0.63
 Backward 3.0 (0.63) 3.0 (0.89) t(10) = 0, p = 1
Guessed condition 6/6 real 6/6 real χ²(1) = 0, p = 1