Suppression of HMGA2 inhibits cell motility and invasion through an MET phenotype alteration, whereas these abilities are not affected by suppression of SMADs. (a) Knockdown of SMAD2, SMAD4, SMAD2 plus SMAD4 (left) and HMGA2 (right) via specific siRNAs was confirmed by western blotting in Panc1 cells. The protein expression of these endogenous genes was downregulated by each specific siRNA compared with control siRNA. (b) The number of viable cells 24–72 hours after transfection of each siRNA was assessed by the WST-8 assay and is presented as the mean ± SD (bars) for triplicate experiments. (c,d) Transwell migration and invasion assays were performed in 24-well modified Boyden chambers without and with Matrigel, respectively. siRNA-transfected Panc1 cells (4 × 104 cells per well [migration and invasion assay]) were transferred into the upper chamber, and the migrated or invaded cells on the lower surface of the filters were fixed, stained and counted after 24 hours of incubation. Experiments were performed in triplicate, and each data point represents the mean (bars, SD). Student’s t-test was used for statistical analysis, and asterisks represent P < 0.05 versus si-NC transfectants. (e) Model for the miR-509-5p- and miR-1243-mediated pathway in EMT.