Chain spectra over time (T0-T3) in the three tested species. (a) Chaetoceros decipiens, (b) Thalassiosira rotula, (c) Skeletonema marinoi. A representative chain of each species is depicted in the inlets (courtesy of I. Percopo). On the x-axis the chain length expressed as number of cells per chain is reported, on the y-axis the frequency of each chain class expressed in percentage. Dark blue portions of the histograms indicate overlap, red histograms indicate enrichment of a given chain class in the still condition, blue histograms indicate enrichment in the turbulent condition. The reported values are average of three replicates; vertical bars indicate standard deviations (red for still and blue for turbulent conditions, respectively). All results were statistically validated by Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample (KS2) and Wilcoxon non parametric tests (Supplementary Tables 8 and 9), a black star indicates that test outcome equals 1.