(a) Time series of the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) averaged over Niño3 (i.e., Niño3 index) from ERSST. Here Niño3 region is bounded by 5°S-5°N and 150°W-90°W. (b) Temporal evolution of Niño3 SSTA. Purple line indicates the 2015/16 El Niño (i.e., 2015EN), red line indicates the composite of traditional super EN events (i.e., 1982/83 EN and 1997/98 EN), and the blue line indicates the composite of the regular EN events during 1980–2015 (including 1986/87, 1987/88, 1991/92, 1994/95, 2002/03, 2004/05, 2006/07 and 2009/10 ENs). The light blue shading indicates the inter-case spread, which is estimated with the inter-case standard deviation of the regular EN events. The magenta dashed lines divide the development of 2015EN into two stages, i.e., the initial developing stage (FMAMJJ) and the late developing stage ([ASON]). Here year and year[−1] indicate the year of an EN event and the preceding year, respectively. This figure was generated by the NCAR Command Language (NCL, version 6.2.1, [Software]. (2014). Boulder, Colorado: UCAR/NCAR/CISL/VETS. http://dx.doi.org/10.5065/D6WD3XH5) and the licensed Microsoft PowerPoint.