Evaluation of secondary antibody binding to polystyrene. (A) The standard protocol lack of extra NFM-TBS blocking versus extra blocking before adding HRP-conjugated anti-M13 antibody in ELISA. No significant differences were found between these two ELISA conditions of PB-TUP binding. Significant differences in binding ability were observed between PB-TUP clone and other clones. (B) 1010 Phage clones were added to the microtiter plates separately. Polystyrene binding phages were recovered by acid elution and titrated. There were significant differences between the phage titer of recovered PB-TUP clone and other phage clones.