Figure 5 | Scientific Reports

Figure 5

From: Microbiota modulation counteracts Alzheimer’s disease progression influencing neuronal proteolysis and gut hormones plasma levels

Figure 5

Aβ load. Panel A: Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 levels expressed as pg/ml determined by ELISA in the brains of AD mice treated or not with SLAB51 (n = 8). Panel B: Expression levels of amyloid oligomers detected by western blot. The densitometry from five separate blots and a representative immunoblot are reported. Equal protein loading was verified by using an anti-GAPDH antibody. The detection was executed by ECL. Data points marked with an asterisk are statistically significant compared to 8 weeks-old controls (*p < 0.05). Data points marked with hash are statistically significant compared to their respective control mice in the same time point (#p < 0.05). Uncropped gels are reported in Supplemental Figure 1. Panel C: Congo red staining of extra- and intra-cellular amyloid deposits in 24-week-old wt and AD mice administered with water or SLAB51 (groups’ size is 8). Specific Congo red staining was progressively seen in somata and processes of hippocampal Ammon’s horn pyramidal cells (insert), especially in untreated AD mice. Strong extracellular deposits demonstrate the formation of amyloid plaques, also visualized by immunostaining. (Congo red stain, with Meyer’s hematoxylin nuclear counterstain. Coronal sections, Bar = 400 μm; dentate gyrus magnification, Bar = 200 μm; insert, Bar = 50 μm). Data are presented as positive cells/field and are representative of 5 histological section for each brain (n = 8 per sub-group). Data points marked with a hash are statistically significant compared to their respective water-treated mice (p < 0.05). Panel D. Aβ1–42 IHC stain: wt and AD mice administered with water (control) or SLAB51. In both upper (low magnification) and lower (high magnifications) groups of images, immunoreactivity towards Aβ1–42 peptide (Aβ1–42 C-terminus pAb, Millipore) was progressively seen in somata and processes of hippocampal pyramidal cells and cortical neurons of AD untreated mice. A strong extracellular reactivity, associated with Aβ plaque formation, can be observed in both treated and untreated AD mice (IHC stain, with Meyer’s hematoxylin nuclear counterstain. Coronal sections, Bar = 400 μm; dentate gyrus magnification, Bar = 200 μm). The histogram shows the Aβ1–42 positive cells/field. Data represent 5 histological section for each brain (n = 8). Data points marked with a hash are statistically significant compared to their respective water-treated mice (p < 0.05).