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Figure 2

From: Nicotine in floral nectar pharmacologically influences bumblebee learning of floral features

Figure 2

Nicotine-laced nectar enhances the forward learning performance of bumblebees during foraging. Learning curve (mean choice accuracy ± SEM) across 50 visits of bees exposed to 1-ppm (n = 15), 2.5-ppm (n = 16) and 50-ppm (n = 14) nicotine and not exposed (n = 15). Individual bees were allowed to forage on two flower types, one unrewarding (water only) and one rewarding (sucrose solution only (controls) or sucrose solution laced with nicotine). After a rewarding flower had been visited for the first time by a bee, 50 consecutive choices were recorded. Each learning curve was generated from the mean choice accuracies (percentage correct choices made) for every consecutive block of 10 choices. Overall, nicotine at 2.5-ppm significantly enhanced the speed of learning (P = 0.015) while the other two tested doses did not (1-ppm: P = 0.1; 50-ppm: P = 0.26).

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