Factors associated with increased molecular degree of perturbation. (A) The molecular degree of perturbation (MDP) relative to healthy controls was calculated as described in Methods. Left panels show histograms of individuals in each subgroup. Right panel shows individual values with median and IQR per group. Data were compared using one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparisons test, with single pooled variance. (B) MDP values were tested for correlations with the indicated parameters in each study subgroup using Spearman correlation ranks. Statistically significant correlations, after Holm-Bonferroni’s adjustment for multiple comparisons, are highlighted (red, positive correlation; blue, negative correlation; black, non-significant correlation). (C) Left panel shows correlation plots between differential WBC counts (neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes) and the MDP in all study groups. Dotted lines represent median values for MDP or leukocyte counts/frequency for the entire study population. Shaded areas indicate the individuals with the highest MDP values and the lowest lymphocyte counts/frequency or the highest neutrophil counts/frequency relative to the study population. Right panel shows comparisons of the frequencies in each study subgroup of individuals from the shaded areas on the left. Frequency comparisons were performed using the chi-squared test. (D) Left panel, MDP score was tested for correlation with the radiographic severity score (Spearman rank test). Right panel shows comparisons of MDP values in patients diverging in terms of TB disease distribution (unilateral vs. bilateral lung lesions) or presence of cavitary lesions. Within each study subgroup, values were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. In all comparisons: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.