Table 2 Toxicity data of transition metals.

From: Synergistic Antimicrobial Effects of Silver/Transition-metal Combinatorial Treatments

  Concentration (mg/Kg) Effect Reference
Rats/Mice
 Cu 300–794 LD50 66, 67
 Zn 337–1710 LD50 67, 68
 Co 42.4 LD50 69
 Cd 100–300 LD50 70
 Ni 39–46 LD50 71
Human (oral)
 Cu 0.091–6 Gastrointestinal1 66
 Zn 0.5–6.7 ↓Cortisol, ↑LDL, gastrointestinal 68
 Co 0.18–1 Gastrointestinal 69
 Cd 0.07 Gastrointestinal 70
 Ni 7.1–35.7 Gastrointestinal 71
Human (dermal)*
 Cu 2–5% as CuSO4 (20 000–50 000) Irritation 66, 67
 Zn 1–2.5% as ZnSO4 (10 000–25 000) May present irritation 67, 68
 Co 1% as CoCl2 (10 000) Contact allergy 69
 Cd 2% as CdCl2 (20 000) Irritation 70
 Ni 0.01–0.4% as NiSO4 (100–4 000) Contact/allergy dermatitis 71
H9C2 cells
 Cu 2 IC50 This work
 Zn 3 IC50 This work
 Co 20 IC50 This work
 Cd 0.1 IC50 This work
 Ni 33 IC50 This work