Table 3 The influence of the hormone treatment on the fitness characteristics of the following offspring generation. Equality of means was assessed using a least-squares linear model in the case of lifespan and spore loads, and a generalised linear model for the number of clutches produced (Poisson distribution, log link function) and infection rates (Binomial distribution, logit link function). Where appropriate, Levene’s test was used to assess homogeneity of variances between the offspring of untreated and treated mothers. All measures were estimated using a single genotype of both D. manga (HU-HO-2) and P. ramosa (C14), following the same basic infection process outlined in this study.

From: The impact of host sex on the outcome of co-infection

  Untreated mothers Treated mothers Equality of means Equality of variances
Mean SD Mean SD F or χ2 df P-value F or χ2 df P-value
Trial 1: Characteristics of uninfected animals or controls
Lifespan (days) 66.86 5.04 67.36 4.71 0.705 1, 268 0.402 0.570 1, 268 0.451
Clutches produced 11.73 1.68 11.49 1.62 0.334 1, 268 0.563 0.201 1, 268 0.654
Trial 2: Characteristics of infected animals
Infection rates 0.89 0.05 0.86 0.054 0.002 1, 69 0.966
Spore loads (millions) 3.97 1.79 3.89 1.94 0.029 1, 61 0.866 0.076 1, 61 0.784
Lifespan (days) 51.88 11.82 50.55 13.38 0.174 1, 61 0.678 0.137 1, 61 0.713
Clutches produced 3.03 1.28 3.10 0.83 0.022 1, 61 0.882 1.362 1, 61 0.248