Table 2 Tests of equality between the production of spores and the relative reduction in lifespan in the co-infection treatments. Presented are one sample t-tests comparing the co-infection treatment groups against the predicted means of various single infection outcomes. We compared virulence under coinfection with that expected based on interference competition (intermediate values), competition for resources (higher values than most virulent) or spite (lower values than the least virulent). The sign of the t-value indicates whether the co-infection outcome was lower or higher than expected.

From: The impact of host sex on the outcome of co-infection

   Female co-infections Male co-infections
t-value df P-value t-value df P-value
True mean is equal to the average of the two single infections
Spore loads: C14 + C1 −2.243 29 0.033 0.669 20 0.511
C19 + C1 0.830 31 0.413 −0.866 21 0.396
C19 + C14 −0.718 26 0.479 −2.329 17 0.032
Lifespan reduction: C14 + C1 0.113 31 0.912 −0.957 20 0.350
C19 + C1 −0.558 31 0.581 −0.781 21 0.444
C19 + C14 0.804 26 0.429 4.510 17 <0.001
True mean is equal to the average of the most virulent strain and least transmissive strain
Spore loads: C14 + C1 −2.182 29 0.037 1.483 20 0.154
C19 + C1 5.846 31 <0.001 1.536 21 0.140
C19 + C14 2.082 26 0.048 −0.756 17 0.460
Lifespan reduction: C14 + C1 −0.893 31 0.389 −1.300 20 0.209
C19 + C1 −3.086 31 0.004 −3.275 21 0.003
C19 + C14 −1.981 26 0.053 2.139 17 0.047
True mean is equal to the average of the least virulent and most transmissive strain
Spore loads: C14 + C1 −2.305 29 0.029 −0.145 20 0.886
C19 + C1 −4.187 31 0.002 −3.268 21 0.004
C19 + C14 −3.517 26 0.002 −3.902 17 0.001
Lifespan reduction: C14 + C1 1.112 31 0.273 −0.615 20 0.546
C19 + C1 1.970 31 0.058 1.713 21 0.104
C19 + C14 3.589 26 0.001 6.877 17 <0.001