Validation of estimates. The main panels (a–c) represent the country-specific cumulative mass of active ingredients reported in the FAOSTAT pesticide database and the PEST-CHEMGRIDS estimates for “herbicides”, “insecticides”, and “bactericides and fungicides”, respectively, in 2015. Estimates for all a.i. in blue were obtained using the correction factor FM = 0.842. Inset panels (b,d,f) represent the global cumulative mass of the corresponding projections from 2015 to 2025 relative to the countries listed in the FAOSTAT and all countries. Ideally, the blue line should be as closer as possible to the FAOSTAT historical data. Panel (c) excludes Sweden, Denmark, Latvia and Lithuania because none or only a few insecticides selected in PEST-CHEMGRIDS are allowed in those countries, and thus comparison is not possible even if they are included in the FAOSTAT database.