Top 5 of the 20 most used crop-specific active ingredients. The panels represents the “high” and “low” historical (within blue shaded areas from 1992 to 2016) and projected (dashed lines) application rates in kg/ha obtained for the 5 out 20 top active ingredients used on dominant and aggregated crops in the USA. Historical data are from the USGS/PNSP database while projections are obtained from step 4 in Fig. 1. Columns refer to dominant and aggregated crop classes. Shaded red, blue and green areas from 2016 to 2025 highlight active ingredients with increasing, steady and decreasing projection trends, respectively. Panels for the top 6 to 20 ingredients are available in25,26.