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Fabrication, characterization and applications of graphene electronic tattoos


Numerous fields of science and technology, including healthcare, robotics and bioelectronics, have begun to switch their research direction from developing ‘high-end, high-cost’ tools towards ‘high-end, low-cost’ solutions. Graphene electronic tattoos (GETs), whose fabrication protocol is discussed in this work, are ideal building blocks of future wearable technology due to their outstanding electromechanical properties. The GETs are composed of high-quality, large-scale graphene that is transferred onto tattoo paper, resulting in an electronic device that is applied onto skin like a temporary tattoo. Here, we provide a comprehensive GET fabrication protocol, starting from graphene growth and ending with integration onto human skin. The methodology presented is unique since it utilizes high-quality electronic-grade graphene, while the processing is done by using low-cost and off-the-shelf methods, such as a mechanical cutter plotter. The GETs can be either used in combination with advanced scientific equipment to perform precision experiments, or with low-cost electrophysiology boards, to conduct similar operations from home. In this protocol, we showcase how GETs can be applied onto the human body and how they can be used to obtain a variety of biopotentials, including electroencephalogram (brain waves), electrocardiogram (heart activity), electromyogram (muscle activity), as well as monitoring of body temperature and hydration. With graphene available from commercial sources, the whole protocol consumes ~3 h of labor and does not require highly trained personnel. The protocol described in this work can be readily replicated in simple laboratories, including high school facilities.

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Fig. 1: Use of GETs for electrophysiological sensing.
Fig. 2: Monitoring skin temperature and hydration via GETs.
Fig. 3: Schematics of GET-based electrooculography and its use for HMI.
Fig. 4: Schematics of the CVD growth process and an approximate timeline recipe for graphene growth.
Fig. 5: Preparation of the copper foil (Steps 1–4).
Fig. 6: Preparation of a bare tattoo substrate (Steps 6–9).
Fig. 7: Transfer of PMMA/graphene flake from the copper etchant (light blue) into clean DI water (Steps 13–15).
Fig. 8: The graphene flip process (Step 18).
Fig. 9: Shaping GETs via the cameo plotter (Steps 20–22).
Fig. 10: Placement of conductive wires and transfer of GETs.
Fig. 11: Electrical performance of the GETs on skin.
Fig. 12: A typical biGET’s temperature response.
Fig. 13: ECG measurement setup via Open BCI ganglion board.
Fig. 14: Impedance vs. sheet resistance comparison for mono- (red), bi- (green), and tri- (blue) layer configurations of graphene from three different suppliers (triangle, circle, and square).

Data availability

Source data are provided with this paper.


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This work was supported in part by the Office of Naval Research grant N00014-18-1-2706. We also acknowledge the support, in part, of National Science Foundation (NSF) grant 2031674. We thank F. Qing of UESTC, and NASCENT-Grolltex collaboration for providing us with large-scale CVD-grown graphene.

Author information




S.K.A., N.L. and D.A. conceived the idea and performed initial experiments. D.K. and S.K.A. optimized the procedure. D.K. and S.K.A. developed the protocol. D.K., S.K.A., A.N., H.J. and J.K. performed the experiments and analyzed the data. D.K. complied the data, wrote the manuscript, and designed the video supplements. All authors discussed the results and contributed to the editing of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dmitry Kireev.

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Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Peer review information Nature Protocols thanks Mario Caironi, Wenlong Cheng and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Related links

Key references using this protocol:

Kabiri Ameri, S. et al. ACS Nano 11, 7634–7641 (2017):

Ameri, S. K. et al. npj 2D Mater. Appl. 2, 1–7 (2018):

Sel, K. et al. BioCAS 2019 - Biomed. Circuits Syst. Conf. Proc. 1–4 (2019):

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Tables 1 and 2.

Reporting Summary

Supplementary Video 1

Visual aid to help understanding procedure for Step 18 of the protocol – reversing graphene

Supplementary Video 2

Visual aid to help understanding procedure for Step 21 of the protocol – shaping GETs via Cameo plotter

Supplementary Video 3

Visual aid to help understanding procedure for Step 22 of the protocol – removing excess of graphene.

Supplementary Video 4

Visual aid to help understanding procedure for Step 24-Option A of the protocol – contacting GETs via copper tape

Supplementary Video 5

Visual aid to help understanding procedure for Step 24-Option B of the protocol – contacting GETs via silver epoxy

Supplementary Video 6

Visual aid to help understanding procedure for Step 25 – troubleshooting the GET transfer on skin

Source data

Source Data Fig. 1

Data files supporting the graphs, figures, plots.

Source Data Fig. 2

Data files supporting the graphs, figures, plots.

Source Data Fig. 11

Data files supporting the graphs, figures, plots.

Source Data Fig. 12

Data files supporting the graphs, figures, plots.

Source Data Fig. 13

Data files supporting the graphs, figures, plots.

Source Data Fig. 14

Data files supporting the graphs, figures, plots.

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Kireev, D., Ameri, S.K., Nederveld, A. et al. Fabrication, characterization and applications of graphene electronic tattoos. Nat Protoc 16, 2395–2417 (2021).

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